Abdominoplasty (tummy tuck) helps flatten the abdomen by removing excess fat and skin, and tightening muscles. The best candidates for abdominoplasty are in good physical condition, with pockets of fat or loose skin that have not responded well to diet and exercise. Abdominoplasty can also be appropriate for slightly obese people whose skin has lost some of its elasticity, and for women with skin and muscles stretched from pregnancy. Anyone planning on losing a significant amount of weight, and women planning on having (more) children, should wait before undergoing abdominoplasty.
Buttock augmentation (a type of gluteoplasty) is performed to enlarge, and possibly reshape, buttocks that have not responded to diet or exercise. Candidates for buttock augmentation are unhappy with the lack of fullness, roundness and projection of their buttocks, and/or with having asymmetrical buttocks; they should also have realistic expectations about the results that surgery can provide. Significantly more women than men seek to have their buttocks augmented, but in recent years, the number of men has increased.
Gynecomastia (overdevelopment of male breasts) is a common condition characterized by an excess of localized fat and/or glandular tissue in the breast. It is sometimes caused by disease, hormonal changes, heredity or certain medications, although, in most cases, its cause is unknown. It can occur in one or both breasts, and can affect babies, preteens, teenagers and grown men. Symptoms of gynecomastia include enlarged breasts, breasts that feel rubbery or firm and, in young boys, nickel- or quarter-sized breast "buds." Breast buds are common in adolescents, and tend to go away on their own.
Labiaplasty is a surgical procedure that is performed on the labia major (the outer lips of the vagina) and/or the labia minor (the inner lips of the vagina). It is used to reduce the size of labia that are too large, and to reshape labia that are uneven, improving their appearance and reducing associated discomfort. A relatively minor surgical procedure, it is performed for cosmetic, hygienic, pain-relief and/or functional reasons. Labiaplasty can be performed alone or in conjunction with procedures such as vaginoplasty and liposuction. Labiaplasty specialists are often plastic surgeons, obstetricians/gynecologists, or urologists.
Liposuction is a minimally invasive cosmetic procedure that uses a thin, hollow tube called a cannula to remove localized areas of body fat. The cannula is inserted through extremely small incisions, and then moved back and forth to loosen excess fat, which is suctioned out using a vacuum or a cannula-attached syringe. Treated areas look slimmer and more contoured, and in better overall proportion to the rest of the body. However, liposuction is not a method for losing weight, and is not effective in eliminating cellulite, or tightening loose and sagging skin.
Scar revision reduces the prominence of scars that result from injury or previous surgery. Although many scars fade over time and become barely noticeable, disruptions to the healing process can cause them to become red, raised, indented or otherwise deformed. The prominence of a scar depends on the type and severity of the injury that caused it, and the patient's age, overall health and ability to heal. For people who are unhappy with or embarrassed by their scars, there are a number of procedures available to make scars less apparent.